"De oorlogen in het westen/

Indian wars ”

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De “Indian wars”is de naam die in de VS meestal gebruikt wordt om een serie conflicten aan te duiden tussen de VS en de native Americans. Binnen de term Indian wars neemt men gemakshalve de Koloniale oorlogen mee tussen de Indianen en de kolonisten, die vooraf gingen aan de creatie van de VS. De oorlogen, die een tijd beslaan vanaf de kolonie- tijd tot aan de massaslachting bij Wounded Knee en het afsluiten van de Amerikaanse Grens in 1890, leidden over het algemeen genomen tot het veroveren van Indiaanse gebieden en de Assimilatie van de Indianen of de gedwongen verhuizing naar reservaten. In 1894 berekende een student op basis van de gegevens van het “United States censes Bureau” dat de meer dan 40 oorlogen van 1775 tot 1890, het leven hebben gekost aan 45.000 indianen en 19.000 blanken. Deze cijfers zijn inclusief vrouwen en kinderen aan beide zijden, omdat veel burgers gedood werden tijdens de strijd aan de grensgebieden. De Indian Wars bestaan uit een serie van kleinere oorlogen. De Amerikaanse Indianen waren en zijn verschillende volkeren met hun eigen geschiedenissen; gedurende de oorlogen waren zij niet één volk, vergelijkbaar met de Europeanen. Zij leefden in gemeenschappen die op diverse manieren georganiseerd waren. De Verschillende groepen besloten meestal over oorlog en vrede op lokaal niveau, hoewel ze soms ook wel deel uit maakten van Allianties, zoals de Iroquois Confederatie of tijdelijke confederaties geïnspireerd door leiders zoals bijv Tecumseh.

Date

Name

Description

1622-44

Powhatan Wars

De eerste Powhatan oorlog vond plaats tussen 1609 en 1613. Het betrof hier een strijd tussen de kolonisten die in Jamestown Virginia leefden en de Indianen van de Powhatan Confederatie.

1642-98 Beaver Wars De Frans en Iroquois oorlogen worden ook wel de Beaver wars genoemd en verwijzen naar een aantal hevige conflicten rond 1650 in het oosten van Noor Amerika.

1637

Pequot War

De Pequot oorlog was een gewapend conflict tussen een alliantie van Kolonies uit Massachusetts bay en Plymouth met de indiaanse bondgenoten de Narrangansett en Mohegan en aan de andere kant de Pequot. Het doel van de oorlog was het uitroeien van de Pequot in het huidige Zuidelijk deel van New England .

1643-45 Kiefts War Een conflict tussen de Hollandse Gouverneur van new Amsterdam, Willem Kieft en de plaatselijke stammen.

1680-92

Pueblo Revolt

In Arizona and New Mexico, Pueblo Indians led by Popé, rebelled against the Spanish and lived independently for 12 years. The Spanish re-conquered in them in 1692.

1689-1763

French and Indian War

A conflict between France and Britain for possession of North America. For various motivations, most Algonquian tribes allied with the French; the Iroquois with the British.

1711

Tuscarora War

Taking place in Northern Carolina, the Tuscarora, under Chief Hancock, attacked several settlements, killing settlers and destroying farms. In 1713, James Moore and Yamasee warriors defeated the raiders.

1715-1718

Yamasee War

In southern Carolina, an Indian confederation led by the Yamasee came close to exterminating a white settlement in their region.

1763

Pontiac's Rebellion

In the Ohio River Valley, War Chief Pontiac and a large alliance drove out the British at every post except Detroit. After besieging the fort for five months, they withdrew to find food for the winter.

March 22, 1622

Jamestown Massacre

Powhatans kill 347 English settlers throughout the Virginia colony.

May 26, 1637

Mystic Massacre

English colonists, with Mohegan and Narragansett allies, attack a large Pequot village on the Mystic River in what is now Connecticut, killing around 500 villagers.

February 8, 1690

Schenectady Massacre

French and Algonquins destroy Schenectady, New York, killing 60 settlers, including ten women and at least twelve children.

February 29, 1704

Deerfield Massacre

A force comprised of Abenaki, Kanienkehaka, Wyandot and Pocumtuck Indians, led by a small contingent of French-Canadian militia, sack the town of Deerfield, Massachusetts, killing 56 civilians and taking dozens more as captives.

August, 1757

Fort William Henry Massacre

Following the fall of Fort William Henry, between 70 and 180 British and colonial prisoners are killed by Indian allies of the French.

1760-62

Cherokee Uprising

A breakdown in relations between the British and the Cherokee leads to a general uprising in present-day Tennessee, Virginia and the Carolinas.

September 14,  1763

Devil's Hole Massacre

Seneca double ambush of a British supply train and soldiers.

December, 1763

Killings by the Paxton Boys

Pennsylvania settlers kill 20 peaceful Susquehannock in response to Pontiac's Rebellion.

July 26, 1764

Enoch Brown School Massacre

Four Delaware Indians killed a schoolmaster, 10 pupils and a pregnant woman. Amazingly two pupils who were scalped survived.

1774

Lord Dunmore's War

Shawnee and Mingo Indians raided a wave of traders and settlers in the southern Ohio River Valley. Governor Dunmore of Virginia, sent in 3,000 soldiers and defeated 1,000 natives.

1776-1794

Chickamauga Wars

Een serie conflicten die het gevolg waren van de voortdurende verzet van de Cherokee tegen de opkomst van de Blanke kolonisatie. Geleid door Dragging Canoe, die de Chickamauga genoemd werd door de kolonisten, de Cherokee vochten met kolonisten in Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, en Georgia.

July 3, 1778

Wyoming Valley Massacre

Following a battle with rebel defenders of Forty Fort, Iroquois allies of the Loyalist forces hunt and kill those who flee, then torture to death those who surrendered.

August 31, 1778

Stockbridge Massacre

A battle of the American Revolutionary War that rebel propaganda portrayed as a massacre.

November 11, 1778

Cherry Valley Massacre

An attack by British and Seneca Indian forces on a fort and village in eastern New York during the American Revolutionary War. The town was destroyed and and 16 defenders were killed.

March 8, 1782

Gnadenhütten Massacre

Nearly 100 non-combatant Christian Delaware (Lenape) Indians, mostly women and children, were killed with hammer blows to the head by Pennsylvania militiamen.

1785-1795

Old Northwest War

Fighting occurred in Ohio and Indiana. Following two humiliating defeats at the hands of native warriors, the Americans won a decisive victory under "Mad Anthony" Wayne at the Battle of Fallen Timbers.

1794

Nickajack Expedition

Cherokee Chief Dragging Canoe and his followers, who opposed the peace, separated from the tribe and relocated to East Tennessee, where they were joined by groups of Shawnee and Creek. Engaged in numerous raids on the white settlers for several years, they used Nickajack Cave as their stronghold. In 1894, the military attacked, leaving some 70 Indians dead.

November 6, 1811

Battle of Tippecanoe

The Prophet, brother of Shawnee Chief Tecumseh, attacked Governor William Henry Harrison's force at dawn near the Wabash and Tippecanoe Rivers in Indiana Territory. After hand-to-hand combat, the natives fled.

August 15, 1812

Fort Dearborn Massacre

American settlers and soldiers are killed in ambush near Fort Dearborn, at the present-day site of Chicago, Illinois.

January 22, 1813

Battle of Frenchtown

Also known as the River Raisin Massacre, it was a severe defeat for the Americans during the War of 1812, when they attempted to retake Detroit.

August 18, 1813

Dilbone Massacre

Three settlers killed in Miami County, Ohio.

August 30, 1813

Fort Mims Massacre

Following defeat at the Battle of Burnt Corn, a band of Red Sticks sack Fort Mims, Alabama, killing 400 civilians and taking 250 scalps. This action precipitates the Creek War.

Sept 19 - Oct 21, 1813

Peoria War 

Armed conflict between the U. S. Army and the Potawatomi and the Kickapoo that took place in the Peoria County, Illinois area.

1814 

Creek War

Militiamen under Andrew Jackson broke the power of Creek raiders in Georgia and Alabama after the Creek had  attacked Fort Mims and massacred settlers. They relinquished a vast land tract.

1816-18

First Seminole War

The Seminole, defending runaway slaves and their land in Florida, fought Andrew Jackson's force. Jackson failed to subdue them, but forced Spain to relinquish the territory.

Spring, 1817

Battle of Claremore Mound

Cherokee Indians wipe out Osage Indians led by Chief Clermont at Claremore Mound, Indian Territory.

April 22, 1818

Chehaw Affair

U.S. troops attack a non-hostile village during the First Seminole War, killing an estimated 10 to 50 men, women and children.

June 2, 1823

Arikara War

De Arikara oorlog vond plaats in 1823 en wordt gezien als de eerste Plains - oorlog die er plaats vond tussen de Verenigde Staten en de westelijke Indianen.

1827

Winnebago War

Also referred as the Le Fèvre Indian War, this armed conflict  took place in Wisconsin between the Winnebagos and military forces.  Losses of lives were minimal, but the war was a precedent to the much larger Black Hawk War.

1832

Black Hawk War

Occurring in northern Illinois and southwestern Wisconsin, it was the last native conflict in the area. Led by Chief Black Hawk, the Sac and Fox tribes made an unsuccessful attempt to move back to their homeland.

May 20, 1832

Indian Creek Massacre

Potawatomi Indians, kidnap two girls and kill fifteen men, women and children north of Ottawa, Illinois.

August 1, 1832

Battle of Bad Axe

Around 300 Indian men, women and children are killed in Wisconsin by white soldiers.

Spring, 1833

Cutthroat Gap Massacre

Osage Indians wiped out a Kiowa Indian village in Indian Territory.

1835-42

Second Seminole War

Under Chief Osceola, the Seminole resumed fighting for their land in the Florida Everglades. Osceola was captured and they were nearly eliminated.

1836-1875

Comanche Wars

On the southern plains, primarily in the Texas Republic. The U.S. Military instituted official campaigns against the Comanches in 1867.

1836

Creek War of 1836

Though most Creeks ad been forced to Indian Territory, those that remained rebelled when the state moved to abolish tribal governments and extend state laws over the Creeks.

May 19, 1836

Fort Parker Massacre

Six men killed by a mixed Indian group in Limestone County, Texas.

1837

Osage Indian War

A number of skirmishes with the Osage Indians in Missouri.

November 10, 1837

Battle of Stone Houses

A Texas Ranger Company pursued a band of raiding Kichai Indians up the Brazos River, where they battled near the present day city of  Windthorst, Texas.

October 5, 1838

Killough Massacre

Indians massacre eighteen members and relatives of the Killough family in Texas.

1839

Cherokee War

This war was a culmination of friction between the Cherokee, Kickapoo, and Shawnee Indians and the white settlers in Northeast Texas.

July, 1839

Battle of the Neches

The principal engagement of the Cherokee War, the battle culminated after the Cherokee refused to leave Texas.

1840

Great Raid of 1840

The largest raid ever mounted by Native Americans on white cities. Following the Council House Fight, Comanche War Chief Buffalo Hump raised a huge war party and raided deep into white-settled areas of Southeast Texas.

March 19, 1840

Council House Fight

A conflict between Republic of Texas officials and a Comanche peace delegation in San Antonio, Texas. When terms could not be agreed on, a conflict erupted resulting in the death of 30 Comanche leaders who had come to San Antonio under a flag of truce.

August 11, 1840

Battle of Plum Creek

The Penateka Comanche were so angry after the Council House Fight, they retaliated in the summer of 1840 by conducting multiple raids in the Guadalupe Valley. The raids culminated in a battle between the Indians and the Texas volunteer army along with the Texas Rangers near the present day city of Lockhart, Texas. For two days they battled and the Commanche were defeated.

November 29, 1847

Whitman Massacre

The murder of missionaries Dr Marcus Whitman, Mrs Narcissa Whitman and twelve others at Walla Walla, Washington by Cayuse and Umatilla Indians, triggering the Cayuse War.

June 17, 1848

Battle of Coon Creek

When a company of about 140 soldiers were on their way to left join the Santa Fe battalion in Chihuahua, Mexico, they were attacked near the present town of Kinsley, Kansas by some 200 Comanche and Apache Indians.

1848–1855

Cayuse War

Occurring in Oregon Territory and Washington Territory, the conflict between the Cayuse and white settlers was

caused in part by the influx of disease, and resulting in the

Whitman Massacre and the Cayuse War.

1849-63

Navajo Conflicts

Persistent fighting between the Navajo and the U.S. Army in Arizona and New Mexico led to their expulsion and incarceration on an inhospitable reservation far from their homelands.

1850-1851

Mariposa War

Spawned by the flood of miners rushing onto their lands after the California Gold Rush, some tribes fought back including the Paiute and the Yokuts.

Spring, 1850

Bloody Island Massacre

The murder of up to 200 Pomo people on an island near Upper Lake, California by Nathaniel Lyon and his U. S. Army detachment, in retaliation for the killing of two Clear Lake settlers who had been abusing and murdering Pomo people.

1851-1853

Utah Indian Wars

Numerous skirmishes throughout Utah which finally lead to the Walker War.

October 21, 1853

Gunnison Massacre

In Millard County, Utah, a band of Ute Indians massacred Captain John W. Gunnison's Pacific Railroad Survey party of seven men.

1853

Walker War

When the Mormons began to settle on the hunting grounds of the Ute Indians of Utah, they were at first friendly, then fought back.

1854-90

Sioux Wars

As white settlers moved across the Mississippi into Minnesota, South Dakota, and Wyoming, the Sioux under Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse resisted to keep their hunting grounds.

August 17, 1854

Kaibai Creek Massacre

Forty-two Winnemem Wintu men, women and children are killed by white settlers at Kaibai Creek, California.

August 20, 1854

Ward Massacre

Eighteen of the 20 members of the Alexander Ward party were killed by Shoshoni Indians while traveling on the Oregon Trail in western Idaho.

 


Date

Name

Description

1855

Snake River War

Fighting occurred at the junction of the Tucannon River and the Snake River in Washington Territory.

1855

Klickitat War

This conflict occurred between the Klickitat and Cascade Indians against white settlers along the Columbia River in central Washington. When intimidation and force failed to get the Indians to cede their lands, battles erupted resulting in the Indians being removed from their lands.

1855-58

Third Seminole War

Under Chief Billy Bowlegs, the Seminole mounted their final stand against the U.S. in the Florida Everglades. When Bowlegs surrendered; he and others were deported to Indian Territory in Oklahoma.

1855-1856

Rogue River Wars

In the Rogue River Valley area southern Oregon, conflict between the area Indians and white settlers increased eventually breaking into open warfare.

1855–1856

Puget Sound or Yakima War

A conflict of land rights in Washington state, involving the  that ended in the execution of the Nisqually, Muckleshoot, Puyallup, and Klickitat tribes in the state of Washington. The central figure of the war, Nisqually Chief Leschi, was executed.

January-March, 1855

Klamath and Salmon Indian Wars

Battles which occurred in Oregon Territory and Idaho.

August 17, 1855

Grattan Massacre

Twenty-nine U.S. soldiers killed by Brulé Lakota Sioux Indians in Nebraska Territory.

January 26, 1856

Battle of Seattle

Native Americans attacked Seattle, Washington, as part of the Yakima War. The attackers are driven off by artillery fire and by Marines from the U.S. Navy.

February, 1856

Tintic War

A short series of skirmishes occurring in Tintic and Cedar Valleys of Utah, after the conclusion of the Walker War.

January-May,1858

Antelope Hills Expedition

A campaign by Texas Rangers and members of allied tribes against the Comanche and Kiowa in Texas and Oklahoma.

1858

Coeur d'Alene War

Also known as the Spokane-Coeur d'Alene-Paloos War, this second phase of the Yakima War was a series of encounters between the Coeur d’Alenes, Spokanes, Palouses and Northern Paiute tribes and U.S. forces in the Washington and Idaho areas.

September 1, 1858

Battle of Four Lakes

Also known as the Battle of Spokane Plains, the conflilct was part of the Coeur d'Alene War. A force of 600 military men were sent to subdue the tribes, defeating the Indians.

1859

Mendocino War

A conflict between settlers and Native Americans in California that took place in 1859. Several hundred Indians were killed.

1860

Paiute War

Also known as Pyramid Lake War, the war was fought between Northern Paiutes, along with some Shoshone and Bannock, and white settlers in present-day Nevada. The war culminated in two pitched battles in which approximately 80 whites were killed. Smaller raids and skirmishes continued until a cease-fire was agreed to in August, 1860.

February 26, 1860

Gunther Island Massacre

Also known as the Humboldt Bay Massacre, local white settlers, without any apparent provocation, attack four Indian villages, slaying 188 Wiyot Indians, mostly women and children in Humboldt County, California.

December 18, 1860

Battle of Pease River

Battle between Comanche Indians under Peta Nocona and a detachment of Texas Rangers, resulting in the slaughter of the Indians, including women, when the Rangers caught the camp totally by surprise.

1860-65

California Indian Wars

Numerous battles and skirmishes against Hupa, Wiyot, Yurok, Tolowa, Nomlaki, Chimariko, Tsnungwe, Whilkut, Karuk, Wintun and others.

1861–1864

Navajo Wars

Occurring in Arizona and New Mexico Territories, it ended with the Long Walk of the Navajo.

1861-1900

Apache Attacks

In New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas, numerous Apache bands  rejected reservation life, and under Geronimo, Cochise and others, staged hundreds of attacks on outposts. Geronimo finally surrendered in 1886; others fought on until 1900.

August-September, 1862

Sioux War of 1862

Skirmishes in the southwestern quadrant of Minnesota resulted in the deaths of several hundred white settlers. In the largest mass execution in U.S. history, 38 Dakota were hanged. About 1,600 others were sent to a reservation in present-day South Dakota.

March, 1862

Battle of Apache Pass

Battle fought in Arizona between Apache warriors and the California Column as it marched from California to New Mexico.

October 24,  1862

Tonkawa Massacre

Accompanied by Caddo allies, a detachment of irregular Union Indians, mainly Kickapoo, Delaware and Shawnee, attempt to destroy the Tonkawa tribe in Indian Territory. One hundred and fifty of 390 Tonkawa survive.   

January 29, 1863

Bear River Massacre

Colonel Patrick Connor leads a regiment killing at least 200 Indian men, women and children near Preston, Idaho.

April 19, 1863

Keyesville Massacre

White settlers kill 35 Tehachapi men in Kern County, California.

January, 1864

Battle of Canyon de Chelly

This Navajo citadel was the scene of climatic events in the conquest of the Navajo Indians by the U.S. Army Colonel Christopher C. "Kit" Carson’s.

November 29, 1864

Sand Creek Massacre

Militiamen kill at least 160 Cheyenne Indians at Sand Creek, Colorado.

1864–1865

Colorado War

Clashes centered on the Colorado Eastern Plains between the U.S. Army and an alliance consisting largely of the Cheyenne and Arapaho.

1864–1868

Snake War

Fought between U.S. military and the Northern Paiutes and Shoshoni (called the Snakes by white settlers) in Oregon, Idaho, and California. The conflict began with the influx of new mines in Idaho and the Indians rebelled to white encroachment on their lands.

1864–1886

Apache Wars

When the Mescelero Apaches were placed on a reservation with Navajos at Fort Sumner, New Mexico, the war began and continued until 1886, when Geronimo surrendered.

July 28, 1864

 

Battle of Killdeer Mountain

 

Fought in western North Dakota, this battle was an outgrowth to the 1862 Sioux discontent in Minnesota. Leading more than 3,000 volunteers, Brigadier General Alfred Sully confronted more than 1,600 Sioux in the North Dakota badlands, representing one of the largest pitched battles in the history of Plains warfare.

November 25-26, 1864

 

First Battle of Adobe Walls

 

Kit Carson led an attack against a Kiowa village in the Texas Panhandle. The next day, the Kiowa, now joined with the Comanche, counter-attacked. Though thousands of Indians were attacking the Cavalry, Carson and his men were able to hold their position with two howitzers.

1865-1868

Hualapai or Walapais War

Occurring in Arizona Territory, the Hualapai were disturbed by increased settler traffic upon their lands, which caused a number of skirmishes over several years.

1865–1872

Utah's Black Hawk War

Including an estimated 150 battles between Mormon settlers in central Utah and members of the Ute, Paiute and Navajo tribes. The conflict resulted in the abandonment of some settlements and homes, and postponed Mormon expansion in the region.

1865-1879

Ute Wars

The Ute nation rose episodically against white settlers in Utah as the Mormons relentlessly took over their lands and exhausted their resources.

July 26, 1865

 

 

 

Battle of the Platte Bridge Station

 

 

When a wagon train with twenty five men under Sergeant Amos Custard's command were traveling from Sweetwater Station east toward Platte Bridge Station in Wyoming, Sioux and Cheyenne were threatening to attack. Lieutenant Caspar Collins and a small detachment of soldiers were sent out from Platte Bridge Station to try and reach the wagon train and escort it to the station but upon crossing the bridge to the north they were overwhelmed by Sioux and Cheyenne Indians. Lieutenant Collins and several of the men were killed.  

July 26, 1865

Battle of Red Buttes

On the same day of the Battle of the Platte Bridge Station, Sergeant Amos Custard's wagon train was attacked by Sioux and Cheyenne Indians. Custer and 21 soldiers were killed.

August 28, 1865

Connor Battle

 

The U.S. Cavalry under the command of General Patrick Connor attacked Chief Black Bear's Arapaho outside present day Ranchester, Wyoming. This attack caused the Arapaho to join forces with the Sioux and Cheyenne.

August 31, 1865

Sawyer Fight

In retaliation for he attack on Black Bear's village, Arapaho Indians attacked a surveying expedition on the Bozeman Trail in Wyoming.

Date

Name

Description

1866–1868

 

 

Red Cloud's War

 

 

Lakota Chief Red Cloud conducts the most successful attacks against the U.S. Army during the Indian Wars. By the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868), the U.S. granted a large reservation to the Lakota, without military presence or oversight, no settlements, and no reserved road building rights. The reservation included the entire Black Hills.

December 21, 1866

Fetterman Massacre

Fought near Fort Phil Kearny, Wyoming, Sioux and Cheyenne ambushed Captain William J. Fetterman and 80 men, killing every one of them.

1867–1875

Comanche Campaign

Major General Philip Sheridan, in command of the Department of the Missouri, instituted winter campaigning in 1868–69 as a means of rooting out the elusive Indian tribes scattered throughout the border regions of Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, and Texas.

July 2, 1867

Kidder Massacre

Cheyenne and Sioux Indians ambushed and killed a 2nd US Cavalry detachment of eleven men and an Indian guide near Beaver Creek in Sherman County, Kansas.

August 1, 1867

Hayfield Fight

Occurring near Fort C.F. Smith, Montana, Territory, the battle pitted a determined stand of 31 soldiers and civilians against more than 700 Sioux and Cheyenne warriors.

August 2, 1867

 

Wagon Box Fight

 

Captain James Powell with a force of 31 men survived repeated attacks by more than 1,500 Lakota Sioux warriors under the leadership of Chiefs Red Cloud and Crazy Horse. The soldiers, who were guarding woodcutters near Fort Phil Kearny, Wyoming, took refuge in a corral formed by laying 14 wagons end-to-end in an oval configuration.

August 22, 1867 Battle of Beaver Creek

The Eighteenth Kansas Volunteer Cavalry attacked by Indians in Phillips County, Kansas Two  men were killed and 12 seriously wounded.

September, 1867

Battle of Infernal Caverns

Infernal Caverns is the site of an 1867 battle between U.S. armed forces and Paiute, Pit River, and Modoc Indians.

September 17-19, 1868

Battle of Beecher Island

Northern Cheyenne under war leader Roman Nose fought scouts of the U.S. 9th Cavalry Regiment in a nine-day battle.

November 27, 1868

Washita Massacre

Lieutenant Colonel George Custer's 7th cavalry attacked the sleeping Cheyenne village of Black Kettle near present-day Cheyenne, Oklahoma. 250 men, women and children were killed.

July 11, 1869

Battle of Summit Springs

Cheyenne Dog Soldiers led by Tall Bull defeated by elements of U.S. Army. Tall Bull died, reportedly killed by Buffalo Bill Cody.

January 23, 1870

Marias Massacre

White Americans kill 173 Piegans, mainly women, children and the elderly in Montana.

April 30, 1871 Camp Grant Massacre

A mob of angry citizens from Tucson and their Papago Indian  mercenaries clubbed, shot, raped and mutilated 144 Aravaipa Apache people, mostly women and children near Camp Grant. Their actions were taken in "retaliation" for a Gila Apache raid in which six people had been killed and some livestock stolen.

1872–1873

Modoc War

Fighting northern California and southern Oregon, Captain Jack and followers fled from their reservation to the lava beds of Tule Lake, where they held out against soldiers for six months. Major General Edward Canby was killed during a peace conference—the only general to be killed during the Indian Wars. Captain Jack was hanged for the killing.

December 28, 1872

Salt River Canyon Battle

Also called the Skeleton Cave Battle, the U.S. Army won its most striking victory in the long history of Apache warfare at this site in Arizona. About 75 Indians died, and most of the rest were captured.

March 27, 1873

Battle of Turret Peak

Fought in south central Arizona, it was one of the pivotal fights that broke the backs of the Apaches and Yavapais in their efforts to resist white encroachment into their lands.

1874–1875

Red River War

Occurring in northwestern Texas William T. Sherman led a campaign of more than 14 battles against the Arapaho, Comanche, Cheyenne and Kiowa tribes, who eventually surrendered.

June 27, 1874

Second Battle of Adobe Walls

 

A combined force of some 700 Comanche, Cheyenne, Kiowa, and Arapaho warriors, led by Comanche Chief Quanah Parker and Isa-tai, attacked the buffalo camp at Adobe Walls in the Texas Panhandle. The hunters held the site and the Indians retreated, but it soon led to the Red River War.

September 28, 1874

Battle of Palo Duro Canyon

Cheyenne, Comanche, and Kiowa warriors engaged elements of the U.S. 4th Cavalry Regiment led by Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie in Palo Duro Canyon, Texas.

1876–1877

Black Hills War

Lakota under Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse fought the U.S. after repeated violations of the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie

March, 1876

Battle of Powder River

De Slag om Powder River had plaats in het Montana territorium op 17 maart 1876, tussen een strijdmacht van de Cheyenne en het leger van de VS, tijdens de Campagne van Crook naar de Bighorn in strijd om de Black Hills.

June 17, 1876

Battle of Rosebud

Wanneer je kijkt naar het aantal krijgers en soldaten dat deelnam aan de “Battle of the Rosebud” dan kan je spreken over één van de grootste veldslagen tijden de “Indian Wars”

June 25-26, 1876

Battle of the Little Bighorn

Sioux and Cheyenne under the leadership of Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse defeated the 7th Cavalry under George Armstrong Custer.

July 17, 1876

Battle at Warbonnet Creek

Three weeks after Custer's defeat at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, the Fifth U.S. Cavalry skirmished with Cheyenne Indians from the Red Cloud Agency in northwest Nebraska.

October 21, 1876 Battle at Cedar Creek De “Battle of Cedar Creek” vond plaats op 21 oktober, 1876. De strijd werd geleverd tussen het Amerikaanse leger en een gevechtsmacht van de Lakota Sioux.

September 8, 1876

Battle of Slim Buttes

Captain Anson Mills' Third Cavalry troopers attacked the Sioux village of American Horse in South Dakota. American Horse was killed in the ambush.

November 25, 1876

Dull Knife Fight

 

After the Battle of the Little Bighorn the previous summer the U.S. Military began retaliatory campaigns. Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie's 4th Cavalry surprised Dull Knife's winter camp in Wyoming, killing 25 Indians.

1877

Nez Perce War

Vond plaats in Oregon, Idaho, en Montana, de Nez Percé om hun thuisgebied in de Wallowa Vallei. Chief Joseph trok zich terug voor het 1st U.S. Cavalry door Idaho, Yellowstone Park, en Montana nadat een groep Nez Perce een groep Engelse Kolonisten had aangevallen en vermoord begin 1877. Zij gavn zich uiteindelijk over bij de grens aan de soldaten van Nelson Miles.

August 29, 1877

Battle of Big Hole

One of a series of engagements between U.S. troops and the fleeing Nez Perce under Chief Joseph in southwestern Montana.

1878

Bannock War

Elements of the 21st U.S. Infantry, 4th U.S. Artillery, and 1st U.S. Cavalry engaged the natives of southern Idaho including the Bannock and Paiute when the tribes threatened rebellion in 1878, dissatisfied with their land allotments.

1878–1879

Cheyenne War

A conflict between the United States' armed forces and a small group of Cheyenne families.

September 27, 1878

 

Battle of Punished Woman Fork

 

Chiefs Dull Knife and Little Wolf of the Northern Cheyenne led their people in a rebellion and flight from confinement and starvation in Indian Territory to their home lands in the north. The Cheyenne made their final stand in Scott County, Kansas, fighting against the U.S. Cavalry.

September 30, 1878

Last Cheyenne Raid

Cheyenne ambushed Decatur County, Kansas. A running fight with white settlers occurred. In the end 17 settlers were killed in the ambush.

1879

White River War

The war was fought between Ute Indians and the U.S. Army Buffalo Soldiers near the area of the White River that passes through both the states of Colorado and Utah.

January 8, 1879

Ft Robinson Massacre

Northern Cheyenne under Dull Knife attempt to escape from confinement in Fort Robinson, Nebraska; about fifty survive.

May-August, 1879

Sheepeater War

On May 1, 1879, three detachments of soldiers pursued the Idaho Western Shoshone throughout central Idaho during the last campaign in the Pacific Northwest.

September 29, 1879

 

Meeker Massacre

 

One of the most violent expressions of Indian resentment toward the reservation system, Ute Indians  attacked an the White River Indian Agency in Rio Blanca County, Colorado, burning the buildings and killing Indian Agent, Nathan C. Meeker and nine employees.

September 29 - October 5, 1879

Battle of Milk Creek

Following the Meeker Massacre, Ute Indians ambushed a column of 150 troops on the northern edge of the White River Reservation in Moffat County, Colorado.

April 28, 1880

Alma Massacre

Settlers killed by Apaches led by Victorio at Alma, New Mexico. Likewise on December 19, 1885 an officer and 4 enlisted men of the 8th Cavalry Regiment killed by Apaches near Alma, New Mexico.

September, 1879-November, 1880

Ute War

On September 29, 1879, some 200 men, elements of the 4th U.S. Infantry and 5th U.S. Cavalry under the command of Major T. T. Thornburgh, were attacked and besieged in Red Canyon by 300 to 400 Ute warriors. Thornburgh's group was rescued by forces of the 5th and U.S. 9th Cavalry Regiment in early October, but not before significant loss of life had occurred. The Utes were finally pacified in November 1880.

August 30, 1881

Battle of Cibeque

When Apache shaman, Noch-del-klinne (the prophet) began to teach dances and rites similar to the ghost dance, he was arrested and fighting erupted along Cibecue Creek, Arizona.

July 17, 1882

Battle of Big Dry Wash

The battle of Big Dry Wash was the last major fight with hostile Apaches in Arizona Territory and marked the end of an era.

September 4, 1886

Skeleton Canyon

Geronimo and less than 40 Apaches, surrendered to Brigadier General Nelson Miles at Skeleton Canyon, Arizona, marking the end of the Apache Wars.

1890–1891

Ghost Dance War

An armed conflict between the U.S. government and Native Americans that resulted from a religious movement called the Ghost Dance. The conflict included the Wounded Knee Massacre and the Pine Ridge Campaign.

November, 1890-January, 1891

Pine Ridge Campaign

Numerous unresolved grievances led to the last major conflict with the Sioux. A lopsided engagement that involved almost half the infantry and cavalry of the Regular Army caused the surviving warriors to lay down their arms and retreat to their reservations in January 1891.

December 29, 1890

Wounded Knee Massacre

Sitting Bull's halbroer, Big Foot, en ongeveer 200 Sioux kwamen om door de U.S. 7th Cavalry.slechts veertien dagen daarvoor was Sitting Bull vermoord met zijn zoon Crow Foot bij het Standing Rock Agentschap.

October 5, 1898

Battle of Leech Lake

Considered the last "Indian War," an uprising of Chippewa occurred when one of their tribe was arrested on Lake Leech in northern Minnesota.